mTSES References

Benton-Borghi, B. (2006). Teaching every student in the 21st century: Teacher efficacy and technology (Doctoral dissertation, Ohio State University). Retrieved from

Power, R. (2015a). A framework for promoting teacher self-efficacy with mobile reusable learning objects (Doctoral dissertation, Athabasca University). Available from

Power, R. (2015b). The Mobile Teacher’s Sense of Efficacy Scale (mTSES). Available from

Power, R., Cristol, D., Gimbert, B., Bartoletti, R, & Kilgore, W. (2016). Using the mTSES to evaluate and optimize mLearning professional development. The International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning, 17(4)Available from

Power, R., Cristol, D., & Gimbert, B. (2014). Exploring tools to promote teacher efficacy with mLearning. In M. Kalz, Y. Bayyurt, & M. Specht (Eds), Mobile as a mainstream — Towards future challenges in mobile learning: Communications in Computer and Information Science Volume 479, pp. 61-68. Available from

Tschannen-Moran, M., & Woolfolk Hoy, A. (2001a). Teacher efficacy: Capturing and elusive construct. Teaching and Teacher Education, 17(7)783-805.

Tschannen-Moran, M., & Woolfolk Hoy, A. (2001b). Teacher’s sense of efficacy scale. Retrieved from