Abowd, G. D., Dey, A. K., Brown, P. J., Davies, N., Smith, M., & Steggles, P. (1999, September). Towards a better understanding of context and context-awareness. In H. W. Gellersen. Proceedings of the 1st international symposium on Handheld and Ubiquitous Computing. Paper presented at International Symposium on Handheld and Ubiquitous Computing, Karlsruhe, Germany (pp. 304-307). London, UK: Springer-Verlag.

Ally, M. (2004). Foundations of educational theory for online learning. Theory and practice of online learning, 2, 15-44.

Álvarez Valencia, J.A. (2014). Language, Learning, and Identity in Social Networking Sites for Language Learning: The Case of Busuu. (Doctoral dissertation). The University of Arizona, Arizona. Retrieved from

Ampofo, S., Bizimana, B., Mbuthi, J., Ndayambaje, I., Ogeta, N., & Orodho, J. (2014). Information Communication Technology Penetration and its Impact on Education: Lessons of Experience from Selected African Countries of Ghana, Kenya and Rwanda. Journal of Information Engineering and Applications, 4(11), 84-95. Retrieved from

Anand, P., Herrington, A. & Agostinho, S. (2008). Constructivist-based learning using location-aware mobile technology: an exploratory study. In World Conference on Educational Multimedia, Hypermedia and Telecommunications (Vol. 2008, No. 1, pp. 2312-2316).

Ananiadou, K., & Claro, M. (2009). 21st Century Skills and Competences for New Millennium Learners in OECD Countries, OECD Education Working Papers, No. 41, Paris: OECD Publishing.

Andrews, T., & Tynan, B. (2012). Distance learners: Connected, mobile and resourceful individuals. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, 28(4), 565–579.

Armatas, C., Spratt, C. & Vincent, A. (2013). Operationalizing connectivist principles in online tertiary course design. In Proceedings ICICTE 2013, 109-120.

Asabere, N. Y. (2013). Benefits and challenges of mobile learning implementation: Story of developing nations. International Journal of Computer Applications, 73(1), 23-27.

Avvisati, F., Hennessy, S., Kozma, R.B., & Vincent-Lancrin, S. (2013). Review of the Italian strategy for digital schools. OECD Education Working Papers, (90). Retrieved from

Azuma, R., Baillot, Y., Behringer, R., Feiner, S., Julier, S., & MacIntyre, B. (2001). Recent advances in augmented reality. IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, 21 (6), 34 – 47.

Baran, E. (2014). A Review of Research on Mobile Learning in Teacher Education. Educational Technology & Society, 17 (4), 17–32.

Barkhuus, L., & Dey, A. (Eds.). (2003). Is context-aware computing taking control away from the user? three levels of interactivity examined. Proceedings of UbiComp 2003, Seattle, Washington. 150-156.

Beard, C. & Wilson, J. (2013). Experiential Learning: A handbook for education, training and coaching (3rd ed). London: Kogan Page

Becker, A., Cummins, M., Freeman, A., & Rose, K. (2017). 2017 NMC Technology Outlook – Nordic Schools. Retrieved from

Benson, P., & Voller, P. (2014). Autonomy and independence in language learning. Abingdon: Routledge.

Benton-Borghi, B. (2006). Teaching every student in the 21st century: Teacher efficacy and technology (Doctoral dissertation, Ohio State University). Retrieved from

Berger, P. L., & Luckmann, T. (1966). The social construction of reality: A treatise in the sociology of knowledge. Garden City, NY: Anchor Books.

Braun, V., & Clarke, V. (2006). Using thematic analysis in psychology. Qualitative Research in Psychology, 3(2), 77-101. Retrieved from

Brick, B. (2011). How effective are web 2.0 language learning sites in facilitating language learning? Compass: The Journal of Learning and Teaching at the University of Greenwich, 3, 1-8.

British Academic Written National Corpus. (2017). Retrieved from

British Council Teacher Development Integrating ICT. (2017). Retrieved from

British Council, Cambridge English and EAQUALS. (2016). Continuing Professional Development (CPD) frameworks for English language teachers – a joint statement by The British Council, Cambridge English and EAQUALS. Retrieved from

British National Corpus. (2017). Retrieved from

Brookhart, S.M. (2013). How to Create and Use Rubrics for Formative Assessment and Grading. Alexandria, VA: ASCD.

Brooks, D. C. (2016). ECAR Study of Undergraduate Students and Information Technology 2016. Louisville, CO: EDUCAUSE.

Brown, E., Börner, D., Sharples, M., Glahn, C., De Jong, T., & Specht, M. (2010). Location based and contextual mobile learning. A STELLAR Small Scale Study. Retrieved from

Brown, J. S., Collins, A., & Duguid, P. (1989). Situated cognition and the culture of learning. Educational researcher18(1), 32-42.

Bruner, J.S. (1961). The act of discovery. Harvard Educational Review, 31(1), 21–32.

Burden, K. & Kearney, M. (2017). Introducing the Mobile Learning Toolkit for Educators. Retrieved from

Burston, J. (2014). MALL: the pedagogical challenges. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 27(4), 344–357.

Burston, J. (2014a). The Reality of MALL: Still on the Fringes. CALICO Journal, 31(1), 103–125.

Busuu. (2017). Busuu – Learn Spanish, French, English and other languages for free. Retrieved from

Cambridge Digital Framework. (2017). Retrieved from

Cambridge English. (2014). Cambridge English Teaching Framework. Retrieved from

Cambridge English. (2017). CELTA: Certificate in Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages. Retrieved from

Cambridge English. (2015a). DELTA: Diploma in Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages. Retrieved from

Cambridge English. (2015b). ICELT: In-Service Certificate in English Language Teaching, Syllabus and Assessment Guidelines 2015. Retrieved from

Campigotto, R., McEwen, R., & Demmans Epp, C. (2013). Especially social: Exploring the use of an iOS application in special needs classrooms. Computers & Education, 60(1), 74–86.

Canagarajah, S. (2011). Codemeshing in academic writing: Identifying teachable strategies of translanguaging. The Modern Language Journal95(3), 401-417.

Carey, S. (2010). Beyond fast mapping. Language Learning and Development, 6(3), 184–205. Retrieved from

Carrier, M., Damerow, R.M., & Bailey, K.M. (Eds.). (2017). Digital language learning and teaching: Research, theory, and practice. New York: Routledge.

Chan, J., Chiu, R.Ng, G.,Kwong, T. (2015).  How clickstream tracking helps design mobile learning content.  International Journal of Humanities Social Sciences and Education (IJHSSE),   2( 7), 95 -104.

Chan, T., Roschelle, J., Hsi, S., Kinshuk, K., Brown, T., Patton, C., … Sharples, M. (2006). One-to-one technology-enhanced learning: An opportunity for global research collaboration. Research and Practice in Technology Enhanced Learning, 1(1), 3–29.

Chapelle, C.A., & Sauro, S. (Eds.) (2017). The handbook of technology in second language teaching and learning. Wiley-Blackwell.

Charmaz, K. (2010). Constructing grounded theory. London; Thousand Oaks, Calif: Sage Publications.

Chen, B., & deNoyelles, A. (2013). Exploring students’ mobile learning practices in higher education. EDUCAUSE Review.

Chen, B., Seilhamer, R., Bennett, L., & Bauer, S. (2015). Students’ mobile learning practices in higher education: A multi-year study. EDCAUSE Review.

Cheung, S. K. S. (2012). A study on the use of mobile devices for distance learning. In S. K. S. Cheung, J. Fong, L.-F. Kwok, K. Li, & R. Kwan (Eds.), 5th International Conference on Hybrid Learning (ICHL 2012) (pp. 89–98). Berlin Heidelberg: Springer.

Conole, G., Dyke, M., Oliver, M., & Seale, J. (2004). Mapping pedagogy and tools for effective learning design. Computers & Education, 43(1), 17-33.

Corbin, J., & Strauss, A. (2015). Basics of qualitative research: techniques and procedures for developing grounded theory (4th ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Crompton, H. (2013, September-October). The benefits and challenges of mobile learning. Learning & Leading with Technology, 41(2), 38-39.

Crompton, H., Burke, D., & Gregory, K. H. (2017). The use of mobile learning in PK-12 education: A systematic review. Computers & Education, 110, 51-63.

Cross, S., Sharples, M., & Healing, G. (2015). E-pedagogy of handheld devices 2013 survey: Patterns of student use for learning. Retrieved from

Cross, S., Sharples, M., & Healing, G. (2016). Learning with mobile devices: The changing place and space of distance learners’ study. In EDULEARN16: Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Education and New Learning (pp. 5385–5393). Barcelona: IATED.

Dahlstrom, E., Brooks, D. C., Grajek, S., & Reeves, J. (2015). ECAR Study of Undergraduate Students and Information Technology 2015. Louisville, CO: EDUCAUSE.

Davenport, T. H., & Prusak, L. (1998). Working knowledge: How organizations manage what they know. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Business School Press.

De Leo, G., Gonzales, C. H., Battagiri, P., & Leroy, G. (2010). A smart-phone application and a companion website for the improvement of the communication skills of children with autism: Clinical rationale, technical development and preliminary R\results. Journal of Medical Systems, 1–9. Retrieved from

Dearman, D., & Truong, K. N. (2012). Evaluating the implicit acquisition of second language vocabulary using a live wallpaper. In Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI) (pp. 1391–1400). Austin, Texas: ACM. Retrieved from

Dede, C. (2009). Immersive interfaces for engagement and learning. Science, 323(5910), 66 – 69. doi: 10.1126/science.1167311.

Demmans Epp, C. (2016a). English language learner experiences of formal and informal learning environments. In Learning Analytics and Knowledge (pp. 231–235). Edinburgh, Scotland: ACM Press. Retrieved from

Demmans Epp, C. (2016a). Supporting English language learners with an adaptive mobile application (Doctoral Dissertation). University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada. Retrieved from

Demmans Epp, C. (2017). Migrants and mobile technology use: Gaps in the support provided by current tools. Journal of Interactive Media in Education, Special Collection on Migrants, Education and Technologies, 2017(1), 1–13. Retrieved from

Demmans Epp, C., Djordjevic, J., Wu, S., Moffatt, K., & Baecker, R. M. (2012). Towards providing just-in-time vocabulary support for assistive and augmentative communication. In ACM International Conference on Intelligent User Interfaces (IUI) (pp. 33–36). Lisbon, Portugal: ACM. Retrieved from

Demmans Epp, C., McEwen, R., Campigotto, R., & Moffatt, K. (2015). Information practices and user interfaces: Student use of an iOS application in special education. Education and Information Technologies, 21(5), 1–24. Retrieved from

Demouy, V., & Kukulska-Hulme, A. (2010). On the Spot: Using Mobile Devices for Listening and Speaking Practice on a French Language Programme. Open Learning: The Journal of Open, Distance and E-Learning, 25(3), 217–232.

Demouy, V., Jones, A., Kan, Q., Kukulska-Hulme, A., & Eardley, A. (2016). Why and how do distance learners use mobile devices for language learning? The EuroCALL Review, 24(1), 10. Retrieved from

Denzin N K (1970). The research act: A theoretical introduction to sociological methods. Chicago: Aldine.

Després-Bedward, A. (2017). Engineering education for sustainable cities in Africa: A case for Rwanda. In CEEA 2017 8th Annual Conference. Toronto, Canada. (pp. 1-6). Retrieved from

Dewey, J. (1933). How we think: A restatement of the relation of reflective thinking to the educational process. Lexington, MA: Heath.

Dix, A., Finlay, J.E., Abowd, G.D. & Beale, R. (2003). Human-computer interaction (3rd Ed). Prentice Hall.

Doppelt, Y., Mehalik, M. M., Schunn, C. D., Silk, E., & Krysinski, D. (2008). Engagement and achievements: A case study of design-based learning in a science context. Journal of Technology Education, 19, 22–39.

Dörnyei, Z., & Ushioda, E. (Eds.). (2009). Motivation, language identity and the L2 self. Bristol: Multilingual Matters.

Dougiamas, M. (1998). A journey into Constructivism. Retrieved from

Downes, S. (2012). Connectivism and Connective Knowledge: Essays on meaning and learning networks. Retrieved from

Driscoll, M. (2000). Psychology of learning for instruction. Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon.

Duman, G., Orhon, G., & Gedik, N. (2015). Research trends in mobile assisted language learning from 2000 to 2012. ReCALL, 1–20. Retrieved from

Dunleavy, M., & Dede, C. (2013). Augmented reality teaching and learning. In Handbook of research on educational communications and technology (pp. 735-745). New York, NY: Springer.

Dunn, L. M., & Dunn, D. M. (2007). Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVTTM-4) (4th ed.). Pearson.

EAQUALS. (2016). Framework for Teacher Training and Development. Retrieved from

Elmes, D., & Fraser, A. (2012). Anki (Version 1.2.11). Retrieved from

Erasmus +. (2017). Apply for school staff mobility funding. Retrieved from

Ertmer, P. A., Ottenbreit-Leftwich, A. T., & Tondeur, J. (2014). Teachers’ beliefs and uses of technology to support 21st-century teaching and learning. In H. Fives & M. Gregoire Gill (Eds.), International Handbook of Research on Teacher Beliefs, pp. 403-418. Abingdon: Routledge.

Ertmer, P.A., & Newby, T.J. (1993). Behaviorism, cognitivism, constructivism: Comparing critical features from an instructional design perspective. Performance improvement quarterly, 6(4), 50-72.

European Profiling Grid. (2011). Retrieved from

European Schoolnet. (2013). Survey of schools: ICT in Education. European

Farley, H., Murphy, A., Johnson, C., Carter, B., Lane, M., Midgley, W., … Koronios, A. (2015). How Do Students Use Their Mobile Devices to Support Learning? A Case Study from an Australian Regional University. Journal of Interactive Media in Education, 2015(1).

Farnsworth, V., Kleanthous, I., & Wenger-Trayner, E. (2016). Communities of practice as a social theory of learning: A conversation with Etienne Wenger. British Journal of Educational Studies, 64(2), 139-160.

Ferran-Ferrer, N., Domingo, M., Prieto-Blázquez, J., Corcoles, C., Sancho-Vinuesa, T., & Santanach, F. (2014). Mobile Learning in Higher Education. In M. Ally & A. Tsinakos (Eds.), Increasing Access Through Mobile Learning (pp. 175–192). Vancouver: Commonwealth of Learning Press.

Flowerdew, J., Li, D., & Miller, L. (1998). Attitudes towards English and Cantonese among Hong Kong Chinese university lectures. TESOL Quarterly, 32(2), 201-231.

Garcia, I. (2013). Learning a Language for Free While Translating the Web. Does Duolingo Work? International Journal of English Linguistics, 3(1), p19.  Retrieved from

Gaved, M., Kukulska-Hulme, A., Jones, A., Scanlon, E., Dunwell, I., Lameras, P. & Akiki, O. (2013). Creating coherent incidental learning journeys on mobile devices through feedback and progress indicators. QScience Proceedings: Vol. 2013, 12th World Conference on Mobile and Contextual Learning (mLearn 2013), 13. Retrieved from

Gikas, J., & Grant, M. M. (2013). Mobile computing devices in higher education: Student perspectives on learning with cellphones, smartphones & social media. The Internet and Higher Education, 19, 18–26. Retrieved from

Glaser, B. G., & Strauss, A. L. (1965). Discovery of substantive theory: A basic strategy underlying qualitative research. American Behavioral Scientist8(6), 5-12.

Griffin, P., & Care, E. (Eds). (2015). Assessment and teaching of 21st century skills. Berlin: Springer.

Griffin, P., McGaw, B., & Care, E. (2012). Assessment and teaching of 21st century skills. Dordrecht: Springer.

Haag, J., & Berking, P. (2015). Design Considerations for Mobile Learning. Handbook of Mobile Teaching and Learning, 41-60.

Harasim, L. (2012). Learning Theory and Online Technologies. New York, NY: Routledge.

Hashemi, M., Azizinezhad, M., Najafi, V., & Nesari, A. J. (2011). What is Mobile Learning? Challenges and Capabilities. Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences, 30, 2477-2481.  Retrieved from

Henning, P. H. (2004). Everyday cognition and situated learning. Handbook of research on educational communications and technology: A project of the association for educational communications and technology, 829-861.

Herrington, A. & Herrington, J. (2007). Authentic mobile learning in higher education. Paper presented at the Australian Association for Research in Education Conference Freemantle. (pp. 1-9). Retrieved from

Herrington, J., & Oliver, R. (1995). Critical characteristics of situated learning: implications for the instructional design of multimedia. learning with technology. In Proceedings ASCILITE95 conference (pp. 253–262).

Hockly, N. (2013). Designer Learning: The Teacher as Designer of Mobile-based Classroom Learning Experiences (pp. 1–12). Monterey, CA, USA: The International Research Foundation for English Language Education (TIRF). Retrieved from

Hsu, L. (2013). English as a foreign language learners’ perception of mobile assisted language learning: a cross-national study. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 26(3), 197–213.  Retrieved from

Hugues, O., Fuchs, P., & Nannipieri, O. (2011). New augmented reality taxonomy: Technologies and features of augmented environment. In Handbook of augmented reality (pp. 47-63). Springer New York. Retrieved from

Järvelä, S., Kirschner, P. A., Hadwin, A., Järvenoja, H., Malmberg, J., Miller, M., & Laru, J. (2016). Socially shared regulation of learning in CSCL: understanding and prompting individual- and group-level shared regulatory activities. International Journal of Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning, 11(3), 263–280. Retrieved from

Jarvis, H. A., & Achilleos, M. (2013). From computer assisted language learning (CALL) to mobile assisted language use. Tesl-Ej, 16(4), 1-18.

Johnson, L., Adams Becker, S., Cummins, M., Estrada, V., Freeman, A., & Hall, C.  (2016). Augmented and virtual reality. NMC Horizon Report: 2016 Higher Education Edition, 40-41.

Johnson, L., Adams Becker, S., Cummins, M., Estrada, V., Freeman, A. & Ludgate, H. (2013). NMC Horizon Report: 2013 Higher Education Edition. Austin, Texas: The New Media Consortium. Retrieved from

Johnson, L., Adams Becker, S., Estrada, V., Freeman, A., Kampylis, P., Vuorikari, R., & Punie, Y. (2014). Horizon Report Europe: 2014 Schools Edition. Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union, & Austin, Texas: The New Media Consortium.

Johnson, L., Adams, S., & Cummins, M. (2012). The NMC Horizon Report: 2012 Higher Education Edition. Austin, Texas: The New Media Consortium.  Retrieved from

Johnson, L., Smith, R., Willis, H., Levine, A., & Haywood, K. (2011). The 2011 Horizon Report. Austin, TX: The New Media Consortium.

Kaliisa, R., & Picard, M. (2017). A Systematic Review on Mobile Learning in Higher Education: The African Perspective. Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology – TOJET, 16(1), 1–18.

Ketyi, A. (2013). Using Smartphones in Language Learning: A Pilot Study to turn CALL into MALL. In proceedings EUROCALL 2013, 129-134.

Kirschner, P. A., Sweller, J., & Clark, R. E. (2006). Why Minimal Guidance During Instruction Does Not Work: An Analysis of the Failure of Constructivist, Discovery, Problem-Based, Experiential, and Inquiry-Based Teaching. Educational Psychologist,​ 41​(2), 75-86.

Kizito, R.N. (2016). Connectivism in Learning Activity Design: Implications for Pedagogically-Based Technology Adoption in African Higher Education Contexts. The International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning, 17(2).

Kolb, A. Y., & Kolb, D. A. (2009). Experiential learning theory: A dynamic, holistic approach to management learning, education and development. The SAGE handbook of management learning, education and development, 42-68;

Kolb, D. (1984). Experiential learning: Experience as the source of learning and development

Koole, M. L. (2009). A model for framing mobile learning. In Ally, M. (Ed.), Mobile Learning: Transforming the Delivery of Education and Training. Edmonton: AU Press.

Kukulska-Hulme, A. (2013). Re-skilling Language Learners for a Mobile World (pp. 1–16). Monterey, CA, USA: The International Research Foundation for English Language Education (TIRF). Retrieved from

Kukulska-Hulme, A., & Bull, S. (2009). Theory-based Support for Mobile Language Learning: Noticing and Recording. International Journal of Interactive Mobile Technologies (iJIM), 3(2).  Retrieved from

Kukulska-Hulme, A., & Shield, L. (2008). An Overview of Mobile Assisted Language Learning: from Content Delivery to Supported Collaboration and Interaction. ReCALL, 20(03), 271–289. Retrieved from

Kukulska-Hulme, A., Norris, L., & Donohue, J. (2015). Mobile Pedagogy for English Language Teaching: A Guide for Teachers. The British Council. Retrieved from

Lai, C. (2015). Modeling teachers’ influence on learners’ self-directed use of technology for language learning outside the classroom. Computers & Education, 82, 74–83.  Retrieved from

Lai, K.W., Pratt, K., Anderson, M., & Stigter, J. (2006). Literature review and synthesis: Online communities of practice. Ministry of Education, New Zealand. Retrieved from

Laurillard, D. (2012). Teaching as a Design Science: Building Pedagogical Patterns for Learning and Technology. New York: Routledge.

Laurillard, D. (2013). Rethinking university teaching: A conversational framework for the effective use of learning technologies. Routledge.

Lave, J., & Wenger. E. (1991). Situated Learning: Legitimate Peripheral Participation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Lee, K. (2012). Augmented reality in education and training. TechTrends, 56(2), 14-19.

Leung, C.-H., & Chan, Y.-Y. (2003). Mobile learning: a new paradigm in electronic learning. In 3rd IEEE International Conference on Advanced Technologies (ICALT) (pp. 76–80). Athens, Greece: IEEE. Retrieved from

Levy, P. (2001). Cyberculture (R. Bononno, Trans.). Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press.

Li, S. (2010). ‘Augmented reality’ on a smartphone brings teaching down to earth. The Chronicle of Higher Education. Retrieved from

Liu. M., Evans, M.K., Horwitz, E., Lee, S., McCrory, M., Park, J.B., & Parrish, C.M. (2013). A Study of the use of social network sites for language learning by university ESL students, In M. Lamy, K. Zourou. (Eds.) Social Networking for Language Education (pp.137-157) Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave.

Looi, C.-K., Seow, P., Zhang, B., So, H.-J., Chen, W., & Wong, L.-H. (2010). Leveraging mobile technology for sustainable seamless learning: A research agenda. British Journal of Educational Technology, 41, 154–169.

Lord, G., & Lomicka, L. (2014). Twitter as a tool to promote community among language teachers. Journal of Technology and Teacher Education, 22(2), 187-212.

Luís, A. R. (2016, June). MALL and second language teaching: Challenges for initial teacher education. In Information Systems and Technologies (CISTI), 11th Iberian Conference on Information Systems and Technologies, IEEE. Retrieved from

Lunt, P., & Livingstone, S. (1996). Rethinking the focus group in media and communications research. Journal of Communication, 46(2), 79-98.

MacCallum, K., & Parsons, D. (2016). A Theory-ology of Mobile Learning: Operationalizing Learning Theories with Mobile Activities. In L.E. Dyson, W. Ng & J. Fergusson (Eds.), Mobile Learning Futures – Sustaining Quality Research and Practice in Mobile Learning. 15th World Conference on Mobile and Contextual Learning, Sydney, Australia: UTS.

McKenzie, A., & McCalla, G. I. (2009). Serious Games for Professional Ethics: An Architecture to Support Personalization. In Workshop on Intelligent Educational Games at Artificial Intelligence in Education (AIED) (pp. 69–78). Brighton, England.

Mergel, B. (1998). Instructional Design & Learning Theory. University of Saskatchewan. Retrieved from

Merton, R. K. (1987). The focused interview and focus groups: continuities and discontinuities. Public Opinion Quarterly, 51, 550-556.

Milrad, M., Wong, L., Sharples, M., & Hwang, G. (2013). Seamless Learning: An International Perspective on Next Generation Technology Enhanced Learning. In Z. Berge & L. Muilenburg (Eds.), Handbook of Mobile Learning (pp. 95–108). New York: Routledge.

Mitchell, R., Myles, F. & Marsden, E. (2013). Second Language Learning Theories (3rd ed.) Abingdon, Oxon: Routledge.

Murphy, A., Farley, H., Lane, M., Hafeez-Baig, A., & Carter, B. (2014). Mobile Learning Anytime, Anywhere: What are our students doing? Australasian Journal of Information Systems, 18(3), 331–345.

Naismith, L., Futurelab, N., Lonsdale, P., Vavoula, G., Sharples, M., & Series, N. F. (2004). Literature review in mobile technologies and learning. Retrieved from[08]Mobile_Review[1].pdf

National Research Council. (2012). Education for life and work: Developing transferable knowledge and skills in the 21st century. National Academies Press. Retrieved from

Ojo, T. (2016). Global agenda and ICT4D in Africa: Constraints of localizing “universal norm.” Telecommunications Policy, 40(7), 704-713.

Olsen, M., & Hergenhahn, B. (2013). An introduction to theories of learning (9th ed.) Boston, Mass: Pearson.

Orsini-Jones, M., Brick, B., & Pibworth, L. (2014). Practising Language Interaction via Social Networking Sites: The Expert Student’s Perspective on.Cross-Cultural Interaction: Concepts, Methodologies, Tools, and Applications: Concepts, Methodologies, Tools, and Applications, 385.

Ozan, O. & Kesim, M. (2013). Scaffolding in Connectivist Mobile Learning Environment. Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education 14(2), 44-55.

Palalas, A. (2015). The ecological perspective on the “anytime anyplace” of Mobile-Assisted Language Learning. In E. Gajek (Ed.), Technologie mobilne w kształceniu językowym. (pp. 29–48). Warszawa: Texter.

Papert, S., & Harel, I. (1991). Situating Contructionism. Retrieved from

Papert, S., Harel, I. (1991). Constructionism. Westport, CT: Ablex Publishing.

Pashler, H., McDaniel, M., Rohrer, D. & Bjork, R. (2008). Learning Styles: Concepts and Evidence. Psychological Science in the Public Interest, 9(3), 105-119. Retrived from

Pegrum, M. (2014). Mobile Learning: Languages, Literacies and Cultures. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

Peña-Ayala, A., Sossa, H., & Méndez, I. (2014). Activity theory as a framework for building adaptive e-learning systems: A case to provide empirical evidence. Computers in Human Behavior, 30, 131-145.

Pennycook, A. (2010). Popular Cultures, Popular Languages, and Global Identities. In Coupland, N. (ed.) The Handbook of Language and Globalization. Chichester: Wiley Blackwell. pp. 592-607.

Petit, T., Lacerda, G., & Ferreira, B. (2016). Transforming Brazilian Contexts into Immersion Environments via Mobile-Enabled Language Learning: The Maplango App. In Palalas, Agnieszka & Ally, Mohammed (Eds.) The International Handbook of Mobile-Assisted Language Learning. China Central Radio & TV University Press Co. Ltd, China, pp. 339-369.

Piaget J. (1988). Education for democracy. Paper presented at the Conference on Progressive Education, Cambridge.

PNSD. (2015). Italian National Plan for Digital Education: Piano Nazionale Scuola Digitale. English version. Retrieved from

Poole, E. S., Miller, A. D., Xu, Y., Eiriksdottir, E., Catrambone, R., & Mynatt, E. D. (2011). The Place for Ubiquitous Computing in Schools: Lessons Learned from a School-based Intervention for Youth Physical Activity. In 13th international conference on Ubiquitous Computing (Ubicomp) (pp. 395–404). New York, NY, USA: ACM. Retrieved from

Poushter, J., & Oates, R. (2015). Cell Phones in Africa: Communication Lifeline (p. 15). Washington, DC, USA: Pew Research Center. Retrieved from

Power, R. (2015a). A framework for promoting teacher self-efficacy with mobile reusable learning objects (Doctoral dissertation, Athabasca University). Retrieved from

Power, R. (2015b). The Mobile Teacher’s Sense of Efficacy Scale (mTSES). Retrieved from

Power, R. (2014). Creating mobile reusable learning objects using the CSAM learning design framework. Retrieved from

Power, R. (2013). Collaborative situated active mobile (CSAM) learning strategies: A new perspective on effective mobile learning. Learning and Teaching in Higher Education: Gulf Perspectives, 10(2). Retrieved from

Power, R., Cristol, D., Gimbert, B., Bartoletti, R., & Kilgore, W. (2016). Using the mTSES to evaluate and optimize mLearning professional development. The International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning, 17(4)Retrieved from

Power, R., Cristol, D., & Gimbert, B. (2014). Exploring tools to promote teacher efficacy with mLearning. In M. Kalz, Y. Bayyurt, & M. Specht (Eds), Mobile as a mainstream — Towards future challenges in mobile learning: Communications in Computer and Information Science Volume 479, pp. 61-68. Retrieved from

Purushotma, R. (2005). Commentary: You’re Not Studying You’re Just…, Language Learning and Technology, 9/1, 80–96.

Quinn, C. N. (2011). Designing mLearning. San Francisco, CA: Pfeiffer

Ramirez, G., Chen, X., Geva, E., & Kiefer, H. (2009). Morphological awareness in Spanish-speaking English language learners: within and cross-language effects on word reading. Reading and Writing, 23(3–4), 337–358. Retrieved from

Randell, C., Phelps, T., & Rogers, Y. (2003). Ambient Wood: Demonstration of a digitally enhanced field trip for schoolchildren. Adjunct Proc. IEEE UbiComp 2003, 100-104.

Reinhardt, J., & Chen, H. (2013). An Ecological analysis of social networking site-mediated identity development. In M.N. Lamy & K. Zourou (Eds.), Social networking for language education (pp. 11-30). London: Palgrave Macmillan.

Reynolds, R., Walker, K., & Speight, C. (2010). Web-based museum trails on PDAs for university-level design students: Design and evaluation. Computers & Education55(3), 994-1003.

Richardson, J., & Lenarcic, J. (2008). Text messaging as a catalyst for mobile student administration – The “trigger” experience. International Journal of Emerging Technologies and Society, 6(2), 140–155.

Roebuck, K. (2011). Web Analytics: High-Impact Strategies – What You Need to Know: Definitions, Adoptions, Impact, Benefits, Maturity, Vendors. Newstead: Emereo Pty Limited.

Rogers, Y., et al. (2002). Learning through digitally-augmented physical experiences: Reflections on the Ambient Wood project. Equator IRC. Retrieved from

Rogers, Y., Sharp, H., & Preece, J. (2011). Interaction design beyond human-computer interaction. Chichester, West Sussex, U.K.: J. Wiley & Sons.

Salmon, G. (2012, July 10). Tech for teaching: five trends changing higher education. The Conversation. Retrieved from

Salomon, G. & Perkins, D. N. (1998). Individual and social aspects of learning. Review of research in education, 23(1), 1-24.

Salton, G., & McGill, M. J. (1986). Introduction to Modern Information Retrieval. New York, NY, USA: McGraw-Hill Inc.

Schoolnet and University of Liège. Retrieved from

Sharipova, M., & McCalla, G. I. (2013). Managing Ethical Thinking. In A. Weersinghe, B. Du Boulay, G. Biswas, E. Walker, & C.‐K. Looi (Eds.), Workshop on Self‐Regulated Learning in Educational Technologies (SRL@ET): Supporting, modeling, evaluating, and fostering metacognition with computer‐based learning environments at Artificial Intelligence in Education (AIED) (Vol. 1009, pp. 25–29). Memphis, TN, USA: CEUR Workshop Proceedings.

Siemens, G. (2004). Connectivism: A Learning Theory for the Digital Age. elearnspace. Retrieved from

Sobel, D. (1990, August 20). B. F. Skinner, the Champion of Behaviorism, Is Dead at 86. New York Times.

Son, J.-B. (2016). Selecting and evaluating mobile apps for language learning. In A. Palalas & M. Ally (Eds.), The International Handbook of Mobile-Assisted Language Learning (pp. 161–179). China Central Radio & TV University Press Co., Ltd.

Song, Y. (2011). What are the affordances and constraints of handheld devices for learning in higher education. British Journal of Educational Technology. 42(6), E163–E166.

Stockwell, G. (2010). Using Mobile Phones for Vocabulary Activities: Examining the Effect of the Platform. Language Learning & Technology, 14(2), 95–110.

Stockwell, G. (2010). Using Mobile Phones for Vocabulary Activities: Examining the Effect of the Platform. Language Learning & Technology14(2), 95–110.

Stockwell, G., & Liu, Y. C. (2015). Engaging in mobile phone-based activities for learning vocabulary: An investigation in Japan and Taiwan. CALICO Journal, 32(2), 299–322. Retrieved from

Storz,. C., Maillet, K., Brienne, C., Chotel, L., & Dang, C. (2012). Mobile devices increasing opportunities for informal learning and second language acquisition. In IADIS International Conference Mobile Learning 2012 (pp. 83-89).

Strimel, G. (2014, April). Authentic education by providing a situation for student-selected problem-based learning. Technology and Engineering Teacher, 8-15.

Svartvik, J., & Leech, G. (2016). English – One Tongue, Many Voices. 2nd Edition. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

Sweeney, P. (2013). Is there Evidence for Differential Benefits between Mobile Devices Used for Self-access Learning as Opposed to Language Learning in the Classroom with the Teacher (pp. 1–16). Monterey, CA, USA: The International Research Foundation for English Language Education (TIRF). Retrieved from

Sweller, J., Ayres, P. L., & Kalyuga, S. (2011). Cognitive Load Theory. New York: Springer.

Tapp, J.T. (Ed.). (1969). Reinforcement and Behavior. Academic Press.

Thalheimer, W. (2013). Spacing Effect, Spaced Repetitions, Distributed Practice, etc. Retrieved from

The Digital Teacher. (2017a). The Cambridge English Digital Framework. BETA website. Retrieved from

The Digital Teacher. (2017b). Learning from EdTech, Blog post: 30th March 2017. Retrieved from

Thornbury, S., & Meddings, L. (2001). The roaring in the chimney (or: what coursebooks are good for). Humanising Language Teaching3(5). Retrieved from

Traxler, J. (2005). Defining mobile learning. Presented at IADIS International Conference Mobile Learning, Qawra, Malta. Retrieved from

Traxler, J. (2010). Students and mobile devices. Research in Learning Technology, 18(2), 149–160.

Traxler, J. (2016). Inclusion in an age of mobility. Research in Learning Technology, 24(1).

Trinity (2007). Diploma in TESOL. 2007 update to 2005 syllabus. Retrieved from

Trinity (2016). CertTESOL. Certificate in Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages, 2nd impression April 2016. Retrieved from

Tschannen-Moran, M., & Woolfolk Hoy, A. (2001a). Teacher efficacy: Capturing and elusive construct. Teaching and Teacher Education, 17(7)783-805.

Tschannen-Moran, M., & Woolfolk Hoy, A. (2001b). Teacher’s sense of efficacy scale. Retrieved from

Tsourounis, S., & Demmans Epp, C. (2016). Learning dashboards and gamification in MALL: Design guidelines in practice. In A. Palalas & M. Ally (Eds.), The International Handbook of Mobile-Assisted Language Learning (pp. 370–398). China Central Radio & TV University Press Co., Ltd.

Vesselinov, R., & Grego, J. (2012). Duolingo Effectiveness Study (p. 24). DuoLingo. Retrieved from

Viberg, O., & Grönlund, Å. (2013). Systematising the Field of Mobile Assisted Language Learning. International Journal of Mobile and Blended Learning, 5(4), 72-90.

Viberg, O., & Grönlund, Å. (2013). Cross-cultural Analysis of Users’ Attitudes Toward the Use of Mobile Devices in Second and Foreign Language Learning in Higher Education: A Case from Sweden and China. Comput. Educ.69, 169–180. Retrieved from

Vincent-Layton, K. (2015). Mobile Learning and Engagement: Designing Effective Mobile Lessons. Handbook of Mobile Teaching and Learning, 149-163.

Visser, R. D., Evering, L. C., & Barrett, D. E. (2014). # TwitterforTeachers: The implications of Twitter as a self-directed professional development tool for K–12 teachers. Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 46(4), 396-413.

von Ahn, L. (2013). Duolingo: Learn a Language for Free While Helping to Translate the Web. In Proceedings of the 2013 International Conference on Intelligent User Interfaces (pp. 1–2). New York, NY, USA: ACM. Retrieved from

von Glasersfeld, E. (1982). An Interpretation of Piaget’s Constructivism. Revue Internationale de Philosophie, 36(4), 612–635. Retrieved from

Voogt, J., & Pareja Roblin, N. (2012). A comparative analysis of international frameworks for 21st century competences: Implications for national curriculum policies. Journal of Curriculum Studies, 44, 299–321.

Vygotsky LS (1978) Mind in society: The development of higher psychological processes. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Weller M (2006) Delivering Learning on the Net: The why, what and how of online education. In G. Conole & Oliver, M. (Eds). Contemporary Perspectives in E-Learning Research: Themes, Methods and Impact on practice. London: Kogan Page.

Wenger, E. (2000). Communities of Practice and Social Learning Systems. Organization, 7(2), 225–246.

Wilson, J.P. (Ed.). (2012). International human resource development: learning education and training for nations, organizations and individuals (3rd ed). London: Kogan Page

Wong, L., Chin, C., Tan, C., Liu, M., & Gong, C. (2010). Students’ Meaning Making in a Mobile Assisted Chinese Idiom Learning Environment. In 9th International Conference of the Learning Sciences (Vol. 1, pp. 349–356). Chicago, Illinois: International Society of the Learning Sciences.

Wong, L.-H. (2012). A learner-centric view of mobile seamless learning. British Journal of Educational Technology, 43(1), 19–23.

Wong, L.-H. (2015). A brief history of mobile seamless learning. In L.-H. Wong, M. Milrad, & M. Specht (Eds.), Seamless Learning in the Age of Mobile Connectivity (pp. 3–40). Singapore: Springer.

Wong, L.-H., & Looi, C.-K. (2011). What seams do we remove in mobile-assisted seamless learning? A critical review of the literature. Computers and Education, 57(4), 2364–2381.

Woodman, K. (2016) Strategies for Supporting Teachers in the Implementation of MALL. In Palalas, Agnieszka & Ally, Mohammed (Eds.) The International Handbook of Mobile-Assisted Language Learning. China Central Radio & TV University Press Co. Ltd, China, pp. 316-338.

Wu, W.-H., Jim Wu, Y.-C., Chen, C.-Y., Kao, H.-Y., Lin, C.-H., & Huang, S.-H. (2012). Review of trends from mobile learning studies: A meta-analysis. Computers & Education, 59(2), 817–827. Retrieved from

Yue, K.K., Law, L.Y., Chan, H.L., Chan, J.B., Wong, E.Y., Kwong, T.F. & Wong, E.Y. (2016). Factors in Designing an Augmented Reality M-Learning Trail with Place-based Pedagogy in Residential Education. In Conference Proceedings Mobile Learning Futures – Sustaining Quality Research and Practice in Mobile Learning (pp. 295-309). Dyson, Ng, Fergusson (Eds.). 15th World Conference on Mobile and Contextual Learning, mLearn 2016. Sydney, Australia, October 24-26, 2016.

Zhang, Y. (2015). Characteristics of mobile teaching and learning. Handbook of Mobile Teaching and Learning, 11-28.

Zimmerman, B. J. (1989). Models of Self-Regulated Learning and Academic Achievement. In B. J. Zimmerman & D. H. Schunk (Eds.), Self-Regulated Learning and Academic Achievement (pp. 1–25). Springer New York. Retrieved from